The first Indo-Pakistan War, known as the First Kashmir War (October 22, 1947-January 5, 1949), took place shortly after the independence of India and Pakistan. A ceasefire agreement has led to the establishment of the Line of Control (LOC) as the de facto border between India and Pakistan in Kashmir. The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan to resolve the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war (August 5, 1965-September 23, 1965). It was signed in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, which in turn was part of one of the republics of the USSR. The main objective was to restore economic and diplomatic relations in the countries concerned, to stay away from the internal and external affairs of the other and to work towards the advancement of bilateral relations. An agreement signed by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan in the Soviet city of Tashkent to end the Second Indo-Pakistan War on Kashmir. The two countries agreed not only to withdraw their troops from the territory of the other region and to recover their prisoners of war, but also to begin to normalize their diplomatic relations. Unfortunately, the beginning of Indo-Pakistani friendly relations was made more difficult by Shastri`s death a few hours after the signing of the agreement. The agreement has done little to ease the deep hostility between the two countries since independence in 1947 and did not prevent the outbreak of new hostilities in 1970. The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan, signed on 10 January 1966, which resolved the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war. Peace was achieved on 23 September by the intervention of the external powers that pushed the two nations to the truce, lest the conflict intensify and attract other powers.

[1] [2] The agreement was negotiated by Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin, who had invited the parties to Tashkent. The parties agreed to remove all armed forces from positions that were occupied before August 5, 1965; Renewing diplomatic relations; and to discuss economic, refugee and other issues. The agreement was criticized in India because it contained no war pact or renouncement of guerrilla aggression in Kashmir. In India, the people also criticized the agreement because the Pakistani president and the Indian prime minister did not sign a guerrilla pact in Kashmir. After the day of this declaration, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur died on the day of a sudden heart attack. After him, no one accepted this statement, and it was ignored by the next government. In accordance with Tashkent`s statement, ministerial talks were held on 1 and 2 March 1966. Despite the fact that these talks were unproductive, diplomatic exchanges continued in the spring and summer. The results of these discussions were not obtained due to differences of opinion on the Kashmir issue. The news of Tashkent`s statement shocked the people of Pakistan, who expected India to make more concessions than they got. Things got even worse when Ayub Khan refused to speak and went to solitary confinement instead of announcing the reasons for signing the agreement. Protests and riots took place at various locations in Pakistan.

[3] To dispel the anger and concerns of the people, Ayub Khan decided to take the matter before the people on 14 January 1966. This is the difference with Tashkent`s statement that eventually led to the impeachment of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from the Ayub government, which later founded his own party, the Pakistan People`s Party. Although Ayub Khan was able to satisfy the concerns of the people, Tashkent`s declaration significantly tarnished his image and was one of the factors that led to his downfall. [8] The declaration at the time merely ended hostilities between India and Pakistan, but it left the issue of Kashmir between the two, and neither side had reached an agreement to date.

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Last Modified: December 20, 2020